Alloys – General alloys are combinations of polymers that are physically mixed.
Brittleness – is the lack of material to withstand impact. Typically, brittle materials have lower impact and higher stiffness properties.
Density – of any material is a measure of the mass per unit volume.
Ductility – is the ability of a material to be stretched, pulled or rolled into shape without destroying the integrity of the material.
Elasticity -is the ability of a material to return to its original size and shape after being deformed. Most plastic materials have limited elasticity.
Elastomers- A material which at selected temperatures stretches under low stress and returns back to the original length upon release of stress.
Notch Sensitivity – is a measure of the ease with which a crack propagates through a material from a pre-existing notch, crack or sharp corner.
Plasticity – is the inverse of elasticity. A material that tends to stay in the shape or size to which it is deformed has high plasticity.
Specific Gravity – is the ratio of the mass of a given volume of material compared to the mass of the same volume of water, as measured at 23 degrees centigrade.
Thermosets – are plastics that undergo chemical change during processing to become permanently insoluble and infusible. Thermoset material will undergo or has undergone a chemical reaction by the action of heat, catalysts, ultra-violet light, etc. leading to a relatively infusible state. Typical of the plastics in the thermosetting family are the aminos (melamine and urea), most polyesters, alkyds, epoxies and phenolics.
Thermoplastics – are resins that repeatedly soften when heated and harden when cooled. This characteristic facilitates the forming of the material into desired shape when the thermoplastic is placed within a die or fixture of the desired final geometry. This process is referred to as Thermoforming.
Water Absorption - is the materials tendency or lack of to absorb water, including from atmosphere.
Technical properties for some of known Plastics material.
ABS resins are available in a wide range of melt flow rates, impact, tensile and flexural strength and heat resistance for a wide variety of high and low gloss injection molding applications. The product demonstrates good mechanical properties, resistance to chlorine, and deflects heat at 210 degrees F.
Acetal Copolymers are crystalline thermoplastics with a lower melt point than nylon. The product has excellent dimensional stability, high strength and stiffness and is impact and crash resistant. (Elongation at break is approximately 40 percent). Acetal Copolymers are easy to machine, resistant to most chemicals except in acidic conditions and offer low moisture absorbency, making the product a good choice for use in high moisture environments. Applications include Gears & Pulleys, Valve Fittings, Bearings, Electrical Components and Anti-Friction Parts. The polymer has superior, which gives it high impact and crash resistance.
It has excellent dimensional stability, machinability and high mechanical strength and stiffness. As a strong Polymer, Delrin® provides good wear and abrasion resistance, a low coefficient of friction and low moisture absorption, making the product a good choice for use in high moisture environments. Delrin® is an excellent choice for its long term mechanical stability in applications such as Valves, Washers, Gears, Bushings, Bearings, Seals, Rollers, Timing Screws, Electrical Components and Anti-Friction Parts. It is important to note that although Delrin is strong mechanically, and offers excellent resistance to moisture, gasoline, solvents, and many other neutral chemicals, it cannot tolerate acidic conditions long term.
Glass Filling provides the same basic properties, with added strength. Glass Filled is a tough material that provides the added advantages of greater stiffness, improved creep resistance, low warpage and higher dimensional stability than unfilled, because it possesses surface characteristics of Teflon®. Parts designed using glass-filled will demonstrate good impact resistance, low deformation under load and high fatigue endurance. Glass Filled is an excellent choice for its long-term mechanical stability in applications such as Anti-Friction Parts, Application Bearings, Gears and Parts requiring greater stiffness, Electrical Components and other Close Tolerance Precision Parts and Fuel System Parts.
Nylon 6/6, 6, 6/12
Nylon 6 and 6/6 are the most commonly used Nylon Grades. Chemical resistance and electrical properties are similar, and they have a high molecular weight, which provides maximum resistance to wear and impact applications. Nylon 6/6 is the hardest, and it has a significantly higher melting point and just a gradual decrease in tensile strength as temperatures increase. Nylons work with little or no lubrication, but lubrication will improve the life and load carrying properties. Nylons are useful near food and textiles.
PTFE, better known as Teflon®, is a vinyl polymer with a structure similar to polyethylene. PTFE is useful in making anything that needs to be slippery or non-stick. It is also useful in producing components that meet the challenge of many applications in diverse markets including the food industry, chemical handling valves, automotive industry and for biotech and pharmaceutical research. The carpet industry uses PTFE to treat carpets and fabrics for stain resistance, and it is useful in medical applications for making artificial body parts. PTFE is stable, and it will not react with anything because it repels everything.
PEEK is a crystalline thermoplastic and is chemically resistant. The product operates in high temperatures and in a wide ph range, from 60 percent sulfuric acid to 40 percent sodium hydroxide. Chemical resistance includes organic solvents, and its ability to perform in water temperatures as high as 500 degrees Fahrenheit. Its high mechanical properties, low smoke emission and self-extinguishing characteristics make PEEK a good choice for many applications including automotive engine parts, aerospace components, compressor valve parts and bearings.
It offers excellent chemical resistance, high dielectric strength, natural flame resistance and extremely low smoke generation. Its high mechanical properties and reputation for simplicity of fabrication and bonding, make it a good choice when high performance is required.
Polysulfone resins offer exceptional value and high-performance.
Properties include excellent thermal stability, high toughness and strength, good environmental stress cracking resistance, high heat deflection temperature to 345°Fahrenheit and combustion resistance. Additionally, the product is approved for food contact and potable water.
These resins are a strong, rigid thermoplastic that maintains its properties over a wide temperature range and has a heat deflection temperature of 343° Fahrenheit. It offers exceptional value and high-performance and is an excellent choice for many fluid handling applications. Various grades are available for injection molding of complex parts, blow molding and extrusion. Transparent, opaque and glass-fiber reinforced grades resin are available to meet the needs of many industries including medical and plumbing applications
This resin offer impact resistance, durability, heat and flame resistance and many other properties. This thermoplastic provides high levels of mechanical, optical, electrical and thermal properties. Lexan resin provides opportunities for innovative, cost-effective use in production of business equipment, eyewear, healthcare components and an assortment of other products.
Acrylic is a thermoplastic polymer coating used for various applications including aircraft glazing, plumbing, eyewear and lamination over ABS sheet to provide UV protection. Control of physical properties is achieved through the choice of alcohol used to make the ester. Methyl esters give harder films than butyl esters.
Acrylic offers clarity, UV resistance, abrasion resistance, hardness and stiffness.
low water absorption low smoke emission. It is not recommended for use with temperatures above 120° Fahrenheit.
Polyethylene resin is useful for applications that require chemical resistance, little or no moisture absorption and flexibility. Its use is limited to temperature applications below 200 degrees Fahrenheit, and it has the ability to carry light loads for a long period. Polyethylene products include machined valves and fittings for fluid handling systems, tanks and pumps and industrial products that require a thermoplastic with low or high density, linear low density or ultra low density, tie-layer resins or adhesive resins. Polyethylene satisfies demands for reduced weight, increased strength, fast processing and lower costs. Polyethylene meets the needs of many tough applications
Low Density Polyethylene
LDPE resin is easy to process and improves product performance because it offers excellent printability, strength, tear resistance and elasticity, which makes it a cost effective choice for a variety of film applications. It is useful for producing a variety of products including liners, bags, shrink and lamination films, extrusion coatings and caps and closures. It is durable enough to produce a variety of products such as power cables and toys.
High Density Polyethylene
HPDE resin is useful for applications that require toughness, rigidity and strength, making it a good choice for blow molding and injection molding applications.
For blow molding applications, HDPE resins offer stiffness and stress crack resistance, which makes it a useful application for personal care, household and industrial containers. HDPE pipe resin offers toughness and stress crack resistance making it a good choice for pipe extrusion. HDPE resin offers strength and processability that is essential for injection molding applications.